Text – On Saying Please

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    Q. 1. (A) Read the extract and complete the activities given below: (12) 

     The young liftman in a city office who threw a passenger out of his lift the other morning and was fined for the offence was undoubtedly in the wrong. It was a question of “Please”. The complainant entering the lift, said, “Top”.

    The lift-man demanded “Top-please”, and this concession being refused he not only declined to comply with the instruction but hurled the passenger out of the lift. This, of course was carrying a comment on manner too far.
    Discourtesy is not a legal offence, and it does not excuse assault and battery. If a burglar breaks into my house and I knock him down, the law will acquit me, and if I am physically assaulted, it will permit me to retaliate with reasonable violence. It does this because the burglar and my assailant have broken quite definite commands of the law. But no legal system could attempt to legislate against bad manners or could sanction the use of violence against something which it does not itself recognize as a legally punishable offence. And our sympathy with the lift-man, we must admit that the law is reasonable. It would never do if we are at liberty to box people’s ears because we did not like their behaviour, or the tone of their voices or the scowl on their faces. Our fists would never be idle, and the gutters of the city would run with blood al day.
    I may be as uncivil as I may please, and the law will protect me against violent retaliation. I may be haughty or boorish and there is no penalty to pay except the penalty of being written down an ill-mannered fellow. The law does not compel me to say “Please” or to attune my voice to other people’s sensibilities any more than it says that I shall not wax my moustache or dye my hair or wear ringlets down my neck. It does not recognize the laceration of our feelings as a case for compensation. There is no allowance for moral and intellectual damages in these matters.

    I A. Rewrite the following sentences and state whether they
    are ‘True’ or ‘False’: (2) 

    (i) ‘Politeness’ was the chief character of the liftman.
    (i) The passenger was pushed out of the lift by the lift-man.

    (iii) Moral and intellectual damages are not allowed in such cases.

    (iv) The passenger’s demand was denied by the lift- man.

    A2. Write the given points below: 

    1] Act of the lift-man ———-

    2] Reason ——–

    A3. Complete the following:
    The legal system cannot
    (1) —————————-
    (2) ——————————
    A4. “An ill-mannered fellow is harmful to our society”. Explain the statement in your own words. (2)
    A5. Language study:
    (i) if I am physically assaulted, it will permit me to retaliate with reasonable violence. (Use -Unless)

    (ii) I may be as uncivil as I may please (Make negative) 

    A6. Write the meaning of the given words : 2

    (a) legislate-
    (b) haughty –

    Show the answers of the test

    Q. 1. (A) Read the extract and complete the activities given below: (12) 

     I A. Rewrite the following sentences and state whether they are ‘True’ or ‘False’: (2)

    1. ‘Politeness’ was the chief character of the liftman.
    – False

    2. The passenger was pushed out of the lift by the liftman.- True

    3. Moral and intellectual damages are not allowed in such cases. – True

    4. The passenger’s demand was denied by the liftman. – True

    A2. Write the given points below:

    1. Act of the lift-man: – Threw a passenger out of the lift.

    2. Reason: – The passenger did not say “please” when requesting the top floor.

    A3. Complete the following:

    The legal system cannot
    1. Legislate against bad manners.
    2. Sanction the use of violence against bad manners.

    A4. “An ill-mannered fellow is harmful to our society”. Explain the statement in your own words. (2)

    An ill-mannered person negatively affects social interactions by creating unnecessary conflict and discomfort. Their behavior can disrupt the harmony of communal living.  This, in turn, can lead to further discourtesy and a general decline in mutual respect among people.

    A5. Language study:

    1. If I am physically assaulted, it will permit me to retaliate with reasonable violence.
    Ans: Unless I am physically assaulted, it will not permit me to retaliate with reasonable violence.

    2. I may be as uncivil as I may please.
    Ans: I may not be as civil as I may please.

    A6. Write the meaning of the given words: (2)

    1. Legislate: – To make or enact laws.

    2. Haughty: – Arrogantly superior and disdainful.

     

    ICE BREAKERS

     

    1] Write 

    Vocabulary (Difficult words)

    Offence  – Crime, an illegal act – गुन्हा, 

    Undoubtedly – Certainly, without doubt – निश्चितपणे 
    Complainant –One who makes complaint, A person who makes a formal accusation or brings a case to court – तक्रारदार (शिकायतकर्ता)
    Concession – A thing that is granted, especially in response to demands; a privilege – सवलत / छूट/ अधिकार
    Declined – rejected / refused to accept – नकार देणे,  अस्वीकार करना
    to comply – follow/To act in accordance with a wish or command – पालन करणे, आज्ञापालन करना
    Hurled – Thrown with great force – फेकून दिले/धक्का देना
    Carrying a comment on manner too far – excessive demand
    Discourtesy – Rudeness – असभ्यता 
    Excuse – allow/ permit
    ASSAULT AND BATTERY.- An attack which includes not only threats but also the actual use of violence/ an attack that includes threats and physical violence / शारीरिक हल्ला,  हमला)
    Show more words

     
    Burglar – thief, A person who commits burglary (breaking into a building to commit theft) – चोर
    Knock him down (नीचे गिराना),
    Acquit – release, make free/ to free someone from a charge of fault or crime by a verdict of not guilty / निर्दोष ठरवणे, छोड़ देना, निर्दोष ठहराना)

    to retaliate – take revenge, to make an attack in return for a similar attack – प्रतिशोध घेणे बदला लेना.

    Assault – A physical attack – हल्ला
    Reasonable –sound, Fair and sensible – न्याय्य
    Assailant – attacker/ हमलावर
    Commands – Certain order
    Attempt – try
    to legislate – make a law / To enact laws – कायदे करणे
    Sanction – allow/ To give official permission or approval – मंजूरी
    Offence – crime
    Reasonable – moderate/ proper/ Fair and sensible – न्याय्य 
    liberty – freedom
    to box people’s ears (fight with the fists/ घूँसा मारना )
    Behaviour – nature (व्यवहार)
    the scowl – a facial expression of dislike or displeasure ,गुस्से से देखना)
    be idle – inactive/ silent, we would raise the hand
    uncivil – bad  
    I may please –I may feel
    retaliation –take revenge, बदला लेना
    Haughty – having a high opinion of oneself and often A low opinion of others/Arrogantly superior and disdainful – गर्विष्ठ/ घमंडी
    Boorish – rude/ Rough and bad-mannered – उद्धट
    Penalty – fine/ A punishment imposed for breaking a law, rule, or contract – दंड; जुर्माना; सजा
    Written down – become famous
    Ill-mannered fellow- bad person
    Compel – force
    Attune – understand
    sensibilities – the ability to experience deep feelings
    wax – remove  
    Moustache a strip of hair left to grow above the upper lip
    ringlets (घूँघराले बाल )
    laceration – damage/ hurt
    compensation – money, awarded to someone in recognition of loss, suffering, or injury:
    Allowance – fee, payment, भत्ता
    Intellectual – mental
    damages in these matters.
    Damages – amends
    Negligible – neglectful/ तुच्छ; नगण्य)
    Probable – likely
    Hurt – damage/चोट
    slur – insult, बदनामी; दाग
    social standing – socially / social image
    kick – a blow with the foot
    shins  – The front part of the human leg between the knee and the ankle
    legal redress – justice, समाधान.
    The pain – ache/ दर्द
    pass away – stop
    a wound – injury on the heart, घाव; ज़ख़्म; चोट)
    self-respect – dignity. आत्म-सम्मान
    Vanity – pride, अस्मिता)
    Poison -spoil/ खराब करणे
    Denied – not got
    Brooding – thinking
    restoring – getting
    Equilibrium – balance/ calm mental state/  plural noun: equilibria).
    catching – attrctive)
    bad temper – mood स्वभाव
    bad manners (आदत).
    Bullied – threaten, धमकाना; सताना)
    page- boy (helper) . 
    really (actually)
    getting back (reply)
    Employer (boss)
    henpecked (dominated)
    insolent (rude)
    ill-humours -bad nature).
    stream (flow)
    the calendar ( the year).
    martyrdom (torture शहादत)
    morose (bad) 
    guardian (protector संरक्षक)
    private manners (personal life).     
    No Decalogue (Ten Commandments given in the Bible, दस धार्मिक उपदेश)
    offences (crime)
    administer (manage/run/व्यवस्था करना)
    governed (control/ नियन्त्रित करना)
    social civilities (politeness/ शिष्टाचार),
    tilt (turn/ एक तरफ झुकना)
    bound (tied)  to  endorse (agree/ support) 
    the  verdict (judgment/ निर्णय; फैसला)
    sympathy ( companion/pity/ सहानुभूति; हमदर्दी )
    compels (obligate / मजबूर करना)
    social practice (Pattern/ आदत)
    sacred (spiritual /पूजनीय)
    enjoins (tell/command/लागू)
    acknowledge (admit/ स्वीकार करना; मान लेना)
    courtesies (respectful remark शिष्टाचार)
    intercourse (conversation) 
    friendly co-operation (दोस्ताना),
    an easy give- and- take, (good-natured exchange (as of ideas or comments)
    superiors (senior)
    dictating (order हुक्म चलाना; आदेश देना)
    inferiors (Junior).
    vulgar (impolite/ असभ्य)
    resentment (anger/ नाराजगी)
    feature (present/tell/  पेश करना)
    discriminating (differentiate/ दोष दाखवनारा शब्द)
    rebuke (blame/oppose/ डांट-फटकार)
    disposed (likely /willing/  प्रवृत्त)
    the ordeal (test / कठिन परीक्षा /परख)
    specimen (people/नमुने)
    regards (consider)
    enemies (foe/ दुश्मन; शत्रु)
    creatures (people)
    chief (main/  प्रमुख)
    aggressive manner angry
    fancy (imagine/ like)
    public owes (be obliged repay /expect/  आभारी होना; ऋणी होना)
    insisting ( take a firm stand/ ज़ोर देना)
    standard (level)  
    civility (good behavior) 
    pleasant (joyful)      
    unfriendliness (bad thinking/गलत सोच)
    class (society/community)
    tribute (appreciation / प्रशंसा; आभार)
    conscious (aware/ realize/ अवगत)
    discovery (finding /feeling)
    arouses (evoke/create).  
    annoyed (irritated / परेशान)
    knave (cheater/ धोखेबाज़)
    eyed (looked)
    coldly (displeasure)
    stale (common/ general/बासी; पुराना)
    get.’’ (get you down)
    the necessity of going back (need to go back home),
    inconvenience (trouble/hassle/ परेशानी; तकलीफ़),
    engagement (meeting appointment).   

     

    Lesson - 1.2 "On SAYING “PLEASE”

       The young liftman in a city office who threw a passenger out of his lift the other morning and was fined for the offence (Crime) was undoubtedly in the wrong. It was A question (point) of the “please” complainant (शिकायतकर्ता) entering the lift, said, “Top.” The liftman demanded “Top-please,” and this concession (privilege / छूट/ अधिकार) being refused he not only declined (rejected/ अस्वीकार करना) to comply (follow/ आज्ञापालन करना) with the instruction, but hurled (threw/धक्का देना) the passenger out of the lift. ThrThis, of course was carrying a comment on manner too far (excessive demand). Discourtesy (rudeness) is not a legal offence, and it does not excuse (allow/ permit) ASSAULT AND BATTERY. (An attack which includes not only threats but also the actual use of violence/ हमला) If a burglar (thief) breaks into my house and I knock him down (नीचे गिराना), the law will acquit (release, make free/ छोड़ देना, निर्दोष ठहराना) me, and if I am physically assaulted, it will permit me to retaliate (take revenge, बदला लेना) with reasonable (sound) violence. It does this because the burglar and my assailant (attacker/ हमलावर) have broken quite definite commands (Certain order) of the law. But no legal system could attempt (try) to legislate (make a law) against bad manners, or could sanction (allow) the use of violence against something which it does not itself recognize as a legally punishable offence (crime). And our sympathy with the lift-man, we must admit that the law is reasonable (moderate/ proper). It would never do if we were at liberty (freedom) to box people’s ears (fight with the fists/ घूँसा मारना ) because we did not like their behaviour (व्यवहार) or the tone of their voices, or the scowl (a facial expression of dislike or displeasure ,गुस्से से देखना) on their faces. Our fists would never be idle (inactive/ silent, we would raise the hand), and the gutters of the city would run with blood all day.

    Show the complete Lesson

     

     I may be as uncivil (bad) as I may please (I may feel) and the law will protect me against violent retaliation (take revenge, बदला लेना). I may be haughty (having a high opinion of oneself and often A low opinion of others/ घमंडी). or  boorish (rude) and there  is  no penalty (fine/ दंड; जुर्माना; सजा )  to pay   except  the penalty of  being  written  down (become famous)  an ill-mannered  fellow . The law does not compel me to say “Please” or to attune my voice to other people’s sensibilities (the ability to experience deep feelings) any more than it says that I shall not wax my moustache or dye my hair or wear ringlets (घूँघराले बाल ) down my back. It does not recognize laceration (damage/ hurt) of our feeling as a case for compensation. There is no allowance (fee, payment, भत्ता) for moral and intellectual (mental) damages in these matters.

          This does not mean that the damages (amends) are negligible (neglectful/ तुच्छ; नगण्य). It is probable (likely) that the lift-man was much more acutely hurt (damage/चोट) by what he regarded as a slur (insult, बदनामी; दाग) upon his social standing (socially / social image) than he would have been if he had a kick on the shins, for which he  could have  got a legal redress (justice, समाधान). The pain(a blow with the foot)(ache/ दर्द) of a kick on the shins soon pass away (stop)  but the pain of a wound (injury on the heart, घाव; ज़ख़्म; चोट) to our self-respect (dignity. आत्म-सम्मान) or our vanity (pride, अस्मिता) may poison (spoil/ खराब करणे) a whole day. I can imagine that lift-man, denied ( not got) the relief of throwing the author of his wound out (mind) of the lift, brooding (thinking) over the insult by the hour, and visiting his wife in the evening as the only way of restoring (getting) his equilibrium (balance/ calm mental state/  plural noun: equilibria). For there are few things more catching than (attrctive) bad temper (mood स्वभाव) and bad manners (आदत). When Sir Anthony Absolute bullied (threaten, धमकाना; सताना) Captain Absolute, the latter went out and bullied his man, Fag, whereupon Fag went out downstairs and kicked the page- boy (helper)

    Probably the who said “Top” to liftman-man was really (actually) only getting back (reply) on his employer (boss) who had not said “Good morning” to him because he himself had been henpecked (dominated) at breakfast by his wife, to whom the cook had been insolent (rude) because the housemaid had “answered her  back”.  Cha2We infect the world with our  ill-humours (bad nature). Bad manners probably do more to poison the stream (flow) of the general life than all the crimes in the calendar (in the year). For one wife who gets a black eye from an otherwise good- natured husband there are a hundred who live a life of martyrdom (torture शहादत) under the shadow of  A  morose (bad)  temper.  But all the same the law cannot become the guardian (protector संरक्षक) of our private manners (personal life).

    No Decalogue (Ten Commandments given in the Bible, दस धार्मिक उपदेश) could cover the vast area of offences (crime) and no court could administer (manage/run/व्यवस्था करना) a law which governed (control/ नियन्त्रित करना) our social civilities (politeness/ शिष्टाचार), our speech, the tilt (turn/ एक तरफ झुकना) of our eyebrows and all our moods and manners.

                       But  though  we  are  bound (tied)  to  endorse (agree/ support)   the  verdict (judgment/ निर्णय; फैसला) against  the  lift-man,  most  people  will  have certain sympathy ( companion/pity/ सहानुभूति; हमदर्दी ) with him. While it is true that there is no law that compels (obligate / मजबूर करना) us to say “please”, there is a social practice (Pattern/ आदत) much older and much more sacred (spiritual /पूजनीय) than any law which enjoins (tell/command/लागू) us to be civil.

    And the first requirement of civility is that we should acknowledge (admit/ स्वीकार करना; मान लेना) a service. “Please” and thank you”  are the small change with which we pay our ways as social beings. They are the little courtesies (respectful remark शिष्टाचार) by which we keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly. They  put  our  intercourse (conversation)  upon  the basis of a friendly co-operation (दोस्ताना), an easy give- and- take, (good-natured exchange (as of ideas or comments))instead of on the basis of superiors (senior) dictating (order हुक्म चलाना; आदेश देना) to inferiors (Junior). It is a very vulgar (impolite/ असभ्य) mind that would wish to command where he can have the service for asking and have it with willingness and good-feeling instead of resentment (anger/ नाराजगी)   I should like to feature (present/tell/  पेश करना) in this connection my friend, the polite conductor. By this discriminating (differentiate/ दोष दाखवनारा शब्द) title I do not intend to suggest a rebuke (blame/oppose/ डांटफटकार) to conductors generally.    

        On the contrary, I am disposed (likely /willing/  प्रवृत्त) to think that there are few classes of men who come through the ordeal (test / कठिन परीक्षा /परख) of a very trying calling better than bus conductors do. Here and there you will meet an unpleasant specimen (people/नमुने) who regards (consider) the passengers as his nature enemies (foe/ दुश्मन; शत्रु) –as creatures (people) whose chief (main/  प्रमुख) purpose on the bus is to cheat him, and who can only be kept reasonably honest  by a loud voice and an aggressive manner. But this type is rare-rarer than it used to be. I fancy (imagine/ like) the public owes (be obliged repay /expect/  आभारी होना; ऋणी होना) much to the Underground Railway Company, which also runs the buses, for insisting ( take a firm stand/ ज़ोर देना) on a certain standard (level) of civility (good behavior)  in  its servants and taking care that standard is observed. In doing this it not only makes things pleasant (joyful) for the travelling public, but performs an important social service.    

     It is not, therefore, with any feeling of unfriendliness (bad thinking/गलत सोच) to conductors as a class (society/community) that I pay a tribute (appreciation / प्रशंसा; आभार) to a particular member of that class. I first became conscious (aware/ realize/ अवगत)  of  his existence one day when I jumped on to a bus and found that I had left  home  without any  money  in  my  pocket. Everyone has had the experience and knows the feeling, the mixed feeling, which the discovery (finding /feeling) arouses (evoke/create). You are annoyed (irritated / परेशान) because you look like a fool at the best and like a knave (cheater/  धोखेबाज़) at the worst. You would not be at all surprised if the conductor eyed (looked) you coldly (displeasure) as much as to say, “Yes, I know that stale (common/ general/बासी; पुराना) old trick. Now then, off you get.’’ (get you down) And even if the conductor is a good fellow and lets you down easily, you are with the necessity of going back (need to go back home), and the inconvenience (trouble/hassle/ परेशानी; तकलीफ़), perhaps, of missing your train or your engagement (meeting appointment).     

    Having searched my   pockets   in vain (Useless बेकार में  /व्यर्थ में) for stray coppers (coins), and having found I was utterly (totally)  penniless (without a penny / coin of a paisa/ cent ), I told the  conductor  with as honest a face as I  could assume (think) that I couldn’t pay the fare (ticket/ charge/ किराया), and must go back for money. “Oh you  needn’t  get off: that’s all right,” said he.  “All right,” said I, “but I haven’t a copper on me.” “Oh, I’ll book you through,” he replied. “Where d’ye (would you) want to go?” and he handled his bundle of tickets with the air of a man who was prepared (ready) to give me a ticket for anywhere from the Bank to Hong Kong. I said it was very kind of him, and told him where I wanted to go, and as he gave me the ticket I said, “But where shall I send the fare?” “Oh, you’ll see (meet) me some day all right,” he said cheerfully, he turned to go. And then, luckily, my fingers, still wandering in the corner of my pockets lighted on (got) a shilling the account was squared (Equal).  But that fact did not lessen the glow (shine)  of pleasure (joy/ happiness) which  so good-natured an action had given me.

             A few days after, my most sensitive (delicate/नाजूक) toe was trampled (injured/ fallen on कुचलना( on rather heavily as I sat reading on the top of a bus. I looked up with some anger (outrage / गुस्सा; /संताप) and more agony (pain) and saw my friend of the cheerful countenance (face/ शक्ल .) “Sorry, sir,” he said. “I know these are heavy boots. Got’ em because my own feet get trod (tread/ step on/ fallen)  on so much, and  now I’m treading (पांव रखना ) on other people’s. Hope I didn’t hurt (injury/ चोट पहुंचाना) you, sir.” He had hurt me but he was so nice about it that I assured (ensure /विश्वास दिलाना) him he hadn’t. After this I began to observe him whenever I boarded (get on / enter / चढ़ना; सवार होना) his bus and found a curious pleasure in the constant good- natured of his bearing (manner / conduct/ आचरण; व्यवहार😉.  He seemed to have an inexhaustible (unlimited अपार; बेशुमार) ) fund  of (lot of) patience and a  gift  for making his passengers comfortable (pleasant/ easy/ सुखद; आरामदायक)  I noticed that if  it was raining he  would run up the stairs to give someone the tip (suggestion)   that there was “room inside”.Rai

    With old people he was as considerate (kind/ thoughtful) as a son. And with children as solicitous (loving/careful) as a father. SofaHe had evidently (clearly/ obviously) a peculiarly (particularly) warm (loving) place in his heart for young people, and always, indulged (involve in enjoy/ मौजमस्ती के लिए किसी काम में लिप्त होना ) in some merry jest (मजेदार मज़ाक) with them. If he had a blind man on board it was not enough to set him down safely on the pavement (footpath). He would call to Bill in front to wait while he took him across the road or round the corner, or otherwise safely on his way. In short, I found that he irradiated (created/enlighten/ जगमगाना; चमकाणा) such an atmosphere of good-temper and  kindliness that a  journey  with  him was a lesson  in natural courtesy and good manners.

        What struck (impress/ affected/ प्रभावित करणा) me particularly was the ease with which he got through his work. If bad manners are infectious (infective/ संक्रामक/ फैलने वाला) so also are good manners. If we encounter incivility most of  us are apt (likely) to  become  uncivil,  but  it  is an usually uncouth (impolite)  person  who  can  be disagreeable (not to be ready to affect)  with  sunny (pleasant /happy) people.

               It is with manners as with the weather (manners is like the weather). ‘‘Nothing cares up (brighten/make cheerful/ शुद्ध करना) my spirits (mood/ temper/  आत्मा) like  a  fine day,” said Keats, and a cheerful (happy) person descends (create an effect) on even the gloomiest (depressed/सबसे निराशाजनक) of us with something of the (like) benediction (blessing/ आशीर्वाद) of a fine day.  And so it was always fine weather on the polite conductor’s bus, and his own civility, his conciliatory (compromising/ friendly/ मैत्रीपूर्ण) address and good-humoured bearing ( good conduct आचरण; व्यवहार ) infected his passengers. In lightening their spirits, he lightened his own task. His gaiety (happiness/ प्रसन्नता;  खुशी; आनंद) was not a wasteful luxury (pleasure), but a sound investment.

    I have missed  him  from  my  bus  route  of late (many days);  but  I hope that only means that he has carried his  sunshine (happiness) on to another road. It cannot be too widely diffused (spread) in a rather drab (gloomy) world. And I make no apologies (excuse/ माफीनामा) for writing a panegyric (a piece of writing to praise someone highly/ praiseful words/ प्रशंसा) on an unknown bus conductor. If Wordsworth could gather (get/ learn) lessons  of  wisdom (intelligence/ विद्वता; ज्ञान) from  the  poor  leech-gatherer (leech-parasite/ खून चूसने वाला कीड़ा) on the lonely moor (wet land/ दलदल युक्त बंजर भूमि) I see no reason why lesser people should not  take lessons in conduct from one who shows  how a very modest calling may be  dignified (grand)  by good-temper and kindly feeling.

    It is a matter of general agreement that the war has had a chilling (shocking) effect upon those little everyday civilities (politeness/ सभ्यता) of behavior that sweeten (more pleasant ) the general air (atmosphere) . We must get those civilities back if we are to make life kindly and tolerable (fair/acceptable) for each other. We cannot get them back by invoking (appealing/ taking the help of / की सहायता लेना) the law. The policeman is a necessary  symbol and the law is a necessary institution for as society that is still some-what lower than the angels (impolite/ less than perfect). But the law can only protect us against material (physical) attack. Nor will the lift-man’s way of meeting (facing) moral affront (insult) by physical violence help us to restore (recover / reconstruct) the civilities. I suggest to him, that he would have had a more subtle (clever) and effective revenge if he had treated the gentleman who would not say “please” with elaborate (careful) politeness.

    He would have had (got) the victory, not only over the boor (rude insensitive person / गंवार), but over himself, and that is the victory counts (matter/consider). The polite man may lose the material advantage, but he always has the spiritual victory. I commend (deliver/ told) to the lift- man story of Chesterfield. In his time the London streets were without the pavements of today, and the man who “took the wall” had the driest footing. “I never give the wall to a scoundrel (rascal/ बदमाश)” said the man who met Chesterfield one day in the street.  “I always do,” said Chesterfield, stepping with a bow into the road.Wach I hope the lift-man will agree that his revenge was much more sweet than if he had flung (throw) the fellow into the mud. 

    Brainstorming (Questions and Answers.)

    (A1) (i) Form groups and explain the following words with examples.  You can take help of your teacher.

    1] Humility :  It is a quality having a modest or low view of one’s importance: (Example: Rahul showed great humility by admitting his mistakes . विनम्रता)

    2] Self-esteem : a feeling of pride and confidence in yourself. (Example: Her self-esteem was hurt regularly from her friends.  स्वाभिमान)

    3]Gratitude : the feeling or quality of being thankful (Example: Rajan gave a gift to his father to express gratitude.) आभार; कृतज्ञता

    4] Courtesy : Showing politeness in our behaviour towards others. (Example: Vinod showed courtesy by allowing old person to sit on his seat.) शिष्टाचार; सौजन्य      

    5] Generosity : the quality of being kind and generous means willing to give your money or time. (Example: Mr. Ratan Tata showed his generosity by donating money to the poor and needy people. /Her friends take advantage of (= benefit unfairly from) her generosity.,उदारता)

    6] Sympathy: feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else’s misfortune: (Example: You’ll get no sympathy from me! सहानुभूति; हमदर्दी.)

    (ii)   Have a Group Discussion on the topic ‘The need of soft skills (good behavior) at  work place’. Use the following points.

     1] Written and verbal communication
    2] Ways of interacting with others
    3] Creative abilities
    4] Emotional intelligence. 

       Moderator:  You’ve all been given a few minutes to think about your topic for today’s group discussion, which is ‘The need for soft skills at the workplace’. You may now begin the discussion. Who would like to start?

    Radha: I’ll start. Both written and verbal communication are essential in any workplace to avoid errors, delays, and conflicts. Effective and clear verbal communication helps to make the correct decision, but miscommunications can disturb the work. So written communication like letter or email provides detailed instructions which can prevent misunderstandings. 

    Alok: Radha, I agree with you, but along with written and verbal communication, interacting well with colleagues is very important for a beautiful work environment. Because healthy communication develops good relationships with each other and improve effective teamwork 

    Minal:  I think, creative employees can find perfect solutions to challenges, which make them an important part of the team.so creative abilities are very important for solving any problem. Now a days companies need employees who can think outside the box and come up with new ideas. 

    Aditya: : Yes, that’s true. But we should not neglect relationships. I think, emotions play an important role to keep relations. Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand and manage emotions for binding the relations effectively with others. leaders with high emotional intelligence can motivate their teams, manage conflicts, and create a positive work environment. 

    Moderator: All right, everyone. Your time’s nearly up. Would someone like to summarise this discussion?

    Alok:  It’s clear that soft skills—written and verbal communication, ways of interacting with others, creative abilities, and emotional intelligence—are crucial for success in the workplace. They enhance teamwork, drive innovation, and create a positive and productive work environment. Let’s continue to develop these skills in ourselves and encourage them in others.

    (A2) (i) Read the text and state whether the following statements are True or False. Correct the False statements.

    1] Bitter problems in day-to-day life can be solved by sweet words. – True
    2] Great wars could have been avoided by a little courtesy. -True
    3] Observance of etiquette in a normal situation is important but more important is their observance when the situation is adverse. -True (सामान्य परिस्थितीत शिष्टाचार पाळणे महत्वाचे आहे परंतु परिस्थिती प्रतिकूल असताना त्यांचे पालन करणे अधिक महत्वाचे आहे.)
    4] Words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ help us in making our passage through life uneasy.- False
    5] The law permits anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous. -False

    (ii) Select the most appropriate sentences which suggest the theme of the essay.
    (a) The essay tells us about courtesy, civility, morality, responsibility and control.
    (b) The essay explores the difficulties that can be incurred by an individual when dealing with the public.
    (c) One can keep one’s peace of mind without having to lower themselves to the level of the perceived offender.
    (d) People with low self-esteem are generally difficult to work with and they look down upon others to get a feeling of superiority.

    (iii) (a) Find the reasons for the lift-man’s uncivilized behaviour.
    Ans: The lift-man was impolite by refusing to follow the passenger and threw him out of the lift because the passenger did not respect the liftman by saying only “Top” instead of “Top Please”

    (b)  List the people and their  behaviour  that made the passenger rude and ill-mannered.
    Cha2
    or
    Pas(iv) Good manners are required in our daily life for making our social contacts more cooperative and friendly. Illustrate the behaviour of the polite conductor with different people in various situations.
    Situation
    Behaviour
    1. The writer’s sensitive toe was trampled on
    The conductor said sorry with an apology and courtesy
    2. In the rainy season dealing with people
    He would run upstairs to give someone the tip that there was room inside.
    3. Dealing with old people
    He was as considerate as a son
    4. Dealing with children
    He was as solicitous as a father
    5. Dealing with young people
    He indulged in some merry jest with them
    6. Dealing with a blind man
    Set him down safely on the pavement and ask the drivers to wait till he helped the man to cross the road

    (v) Discuss and write the impact of good temper and kindliness on the society in the light of the good-mannered conductor.
    Ans: People with a good temperament makes people happy around them.  A good temper is equally infectious as a bad one. If we are good-tempered, friendly, and amusing towards people, we will receive the same in exchange. The good-natured conductor in this story enjoys his basic work because he is balanced and considerate of his passengers. He makes his own and others’ lives better by being polite to everyone.

    (vi) ‘A modest calling (simple job) can be made dignified by good temper and kindly feeling’. Explain the statement with examples.
    Ans: The statement “A modest calling can be made dignified by good temper and kindly feeling” shows that ignoring the simplicity of any profession, if we conduct that profession with patience, hard work and positivity, one can elevate that modest job to a level of dignity and respect.

    Examples:
    1] The Polite Cobbler: There is a cobbler working at a bus station in my city. Despite his modest occupation, he interacts with customers very politely. He polishes as well as repairs shoes very carefully and happily. The customers appreciate his dedication in work, his pleasant attitude, and respect to the customers which add dignity to his work.

    2] Another example is that of the Courteous Vadapav Seller: There is a Vadapav Seller, named Ansar Chacha at Sngamner who greets every customer with a warm smile and humorous interaction. His cheerful attitude attracts the customers as well as earn admiration from them which add dignity to his humble profession.

    (vii) The service of the police is necessary for the implementation of law in our society. Do you think is required this service for good social environment? Discuss.
    Ans: The answer to this question is “No”. The police are required to apply the law in physical violence. So, police are effective in protecting people’s lives and property. However, the police cannot enforce politeness since the law does not recognise hurting someone’s feelings as grounds for recompense.

    Q. (A3) a) He committed the crime in broad daylight (not bright daylight or narrow darkness).
    b) I had a cup of strong tea (not rich tea).
    c) The fast train is coming (not quick train).
    Such words or group of words which habitually occur together and thereby convey meaning by association are called collocations. A collocation is a combination of words in a language that often go together.

    (a) Find out the words in column ‘B’ which collocate with the words in column ‘A’.

    Lo

    Ans: Show the answer

    Regular- exercise
    Mid day- Meal
    Key – concept
    Fast – food
    Try – hard
    Richly – decorated
    Free – time
    Traffic- jam
    Social – justice
    Wild -animal

    (b) Learning collocations is essential for making your English sound fluent and natural. Make collocations and use in your own sentences.

    Colo

    Show the answer
    Back Ans
    1] I have made a big mistake today.
    2] It is a big surprise for me.
    3] The big bang theory tells about the universe.
    4] The government needs to take a big decision to tart educational institutes.
    5] The film „big brother‟ was a famous movie.
    6] Kunal had made a big improvement in his linguistic skills.
    7] We should not invest a big amount now a day in the bank.
    8] Mumbai is a big city.
    9] A well-dressed person has a confidence to achieve anything.
    10] The decoration for our annual event was very well done by the students.
    11] All the menus were well made in the birthday party.
    12] Mohan had very well expressed his experiences in the annual day speech.
    13] It is well suited for me.
    14] A well-appointed person can help to develop the company.
    15] A well-educated society builds a strong nation
    16] Big B is a well-known actor.

    (ii) Sometimes while using a word in a sentence, we have to change its word class. We can make several more words from the root word.
    We can make several new words from the root word.
    1] I asked Sumit to ——- my pencil for me (sharp)
    Ans: I asked Sumit to sharpen my pencil for me.
    Now read the following sentences and use the words given in the brackets. Change the word class and rewrite the sentences.
    (a) Leena was eating a very —– apple and obviously enjoying it. (crunch)
    (b) This picture looks —— . (colour)
    (c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not ——- . (accept)
    (d) I like my elder brother. He is very —— . (help)

    Ans: Show the answers

    (a) Leena was eating a very crunchy apple and obviously enjoying it.
    (b) This picture looks colourful.
    (c) I’m afraid that your behaviour is just not acceptable.
    (d) I like my elder brother. He is very helpful. 

    (iii) Complete the following table. Put a cross if a word class does not exist.

    Show the table


    Ve

    (iv) Distinguish between a legal offence and a moral offence on the basis of the given text.
    Show the table

    Mor
    1

    Personal Response (Questions and Answers.)

    1. What is courtesy?
    Ans: Courtesy is a type of polite behaviour that requires to be kind, thoughtful, and respectful of others.

    2] Provide examples of civility.
    Ans: Examples of politeness include
    a) holding the door open for someone,
    b) saying “please” and “thank you,”
    c) actively listening to others, and
    d) respecting their thoughts and feelings.

    3] Why is it necessary to be courteous? (polite, respectful, विनम्र)
    Ans: Courtesy is important because it helps to create a positive and respectful environment, develops good relationships with others, and can improve better communication and understanding with each other.

    4] How can we be courteous to others?
    Ans: We can be courteous to others by using courteous language, avoiding making others feel uncomfortable or hurting their self-respect and helping them selflessly in their need, and understanding them.

    5] What happens if we are not courteous to others?
    Ans: If we are not courteous to others, it can lead to conflicts, hurt feelings, and a breakdown in relationships. It can also create a negative and unpleasant environment.

    6] What is the difference between courtesy and good behavior?
    Ans: Courtesy shows the general behavior and attitude of being polite and welcoming to people, like saying “please” and “thank you,”. Good behaviour covers morally means the principles of right and wrong behaviour and respectfulness, such as honesty and quality of trusting. Both are beneficial for us.   

    7] What are some benefits of having good manners and being courteous?

    Ans: Some benefits of having good manners and being courteous include making a positive impression, building better relationships, promoting respect and understanding, and creating a more pleasant environment for oneself and others.

    8] How can one improve their manners and show more courtesy?

    Ans: One can improve their manners and show more courtesy by being aware of social norms and expectations, practicing active listening, using polite language, being considerate of others, and seeking feedback and improvement.

    9] How does one deal with people who are not courteous?

    Ans: Dealing with people who are not courteous can be challenging. It’s important to stay calm and not let their behavior affect one’s own behavior. One can try to address the situation politely, seek clarification, and set boundaries if necessary.

    10] How can parents teach their children good manners and courtesy?

    Ans: Parents can teach their children good manners and courtesy by modeling the behavior themselves, discussing the importance of manners and courtesy, and providing opportunities for children to practice good behavior in different situations. Praise and positive reinforcement can also be effective in encouraging good behavior.

    11] Give some examples of bad behaviour that are not punishable under law.
    Ans:
    1] Some men cut silly jokes on the physical appearance of the people.
    2] Some people sit on seats reserved for ladies. 
    3] Some silly boys tease the old people.
    4] Some persons misguide others.
    5] Some wear unbefitting dresses.
    6] Some break the queues.
    7] Some do not use their kerchiefs while sneezing or coughing.
    Such activities of bad behaviour are not punishable by law.

    12] Suggest some ways to encourage people to adopt good moral behaviour.
    Ans: Man by nature is always good. Circumstances make him bad. We can do something to encourage people to adopt good moral behaviour.

    a) We should tell him the importance of small courtesies in social life. 

    b) Giving him the examples, we should make him understand that how small courtesies oil the machine of life and make it run smoothly. 

    c) Tell him how bad manners poison the stream of life more than all the crimes in the calendar. 

    d)  We can convince bad mannered persons with polite and oily words.

    13] Discuss the necessity of the police and law in the society.
    Ans: We know, in India, all sorts of crimes take place in broad day lights. Cases of bribery, kidnappings, robberies and dacoities are on the increase. Nobody fears the law. Life of the common man has become unsafe because everybody has become corrupt. Therefore, there is a great necessity of the police and law in the society to protect our nation.

    14]  What are the ill effects of war on our everyday civilities?
    Ans: War has affected our day-to-day behaviour badly. It has made the people aggressive. If we want to restore politeness, taking revenge like a liftman will never do good. Due to the war, we have lost our civilities, patience and has become violent, aggressive and revengeful.

    Grammar

    1] The young liftman in a city office who threw a passenger out of his lift the other morning. (Remove Who)

    Ans: The young liftman in a city office throwing a passenger out of his lift the other morning. 

    2] It was a question of the “please” complainant entering the lift, said, “Top.” (Use Who)

    Ans:  It was a question of the “please” complainant who entered the lift, said, “Top.” 

    3] The policeman is a necessary symbol lower than the angels.
    Ans: The angels are not a necessary symbol as low as the policeman.

    4] His revenge was much more sweet than if he had flung the fellow into the mud.
    Ans: if he had flung the fellow into the mud was not as sweet as his revenge.
    5] The law is a necessary institution for as society that is still some-what lower than the angels.
    Ans: The angels are not a necessary institution for as society that is still somewhat as low as the law.
    6] With old people he was as considerate as a son.
    Ans: With old people, a son was not more considerate than he
    7] With children as solicitous as a father.
    Ans: With children, a father was not more solicitous than he.
    8] There are few things more catching than bad temper and bad manners.
    Ans: There are no bad temper and bad manners as much catching as few things.
    9] The law cannot become the guardian of our private manners. (Use- Be unable
    to)
    Ans: The law is unable to become the guardian of our private manners.
    10] I couldn‟t pay the fare. (Use- Be able to)
    Ans: I was not able to pay the fare.
    11] We cannot get them back by invoking the law. (Use- Be able to)
    Ans: We are not able to get them back by invoking the law.
    12] But no legal system could attempt to legislate against bad manners. (Use- Be
    able to)
    Ans: But no legal system was able to attempt to legislate against bad manners.
    13] Wordsworth was able to gather lessons of wisdom. (Remove -Be able to)
    Ans: Wordsworth could gather lessons of wisdom.
    14] We must get those civilities back if we are to make life kindly and
    tolerable for each other.
    Ans: We must not get those civilities back unless we are to make life kindly and
    tolerable for each other.
    15] It would never do if we were at liberty.
    Ans: It would do unless we were at liberty.
    16] You would not be at all surprised if the conductor eyed you looked coldly.
    Ans: You would be at all surprised unless the conductor eyed you looked coldly.
    17] He would call to Bill in front to wait. (Rewrite using „gerund‟ form)
    Ans: He would call to Bill in front for waiting.
    18] I can imagine that lift-man, denied the relief of throwing the author. [Use
    infinitive]Ans: I can imagine that lift-man, denied the relief to throw the author.
    19] The law does not compel me to say “Please.” (Rewrite using „gerund‟ form )
    Ans: The law does not compel me for saying “Please.”
    20] He can have the service for asking it. [Use infinitive]Ans: He can have the service to ask it.
    21] I do not intend to suggest a rebuke to conductors generally. (Rewrite using
    „gerund‟ form)
    Ans: I do not intend for suggesting a rebuke to conductors generally.
    22] We must get those civilities back if we are to make life kindly and tolerable.
    (Rewrite using „gerund‟ form)
    Ans: We must get those civilities back if we are making life kindly and tolerable.
    23] The Underground Railway Company also runs the buses, for insisting on a
    certain standard of civility. [Use infinitive]Ans: The Underground Railway Company also runs the buses to insisting on a
    certain standard of civility.
    24] After this I began to observe him whenever I boarded his bus. (Rewrite using
    „gerund‟ form)
    Ans: After this I began observing him whenever I boarded his bus.
    25] You are with the necessity of going back. [Use infinitive]Ans: You are with the necessity to go back.
    26] He would run up the stairs to give someone the tip. (Rewrite using „gerund‟
    form)
    Ans: He would run up the stairs for giving someone the tip.
    27] I make no apologies for writing a panegyric on an unknown bus conductor.
    [Use infinitive]Ans: I make no apologies to write a panegyric on an unknown bus conductor.
    28] We must admit that the law is reasonable. (Use another modal auxiliary to
    make the sentence of Advice)
    Ans: We should admit that the law is reasonable.
    29] It would never do if we were at liberty. (Use another modal auxiliary to make
    the sentence of prohibition)
    Ans: It may never do if we were at liberty.
    30] Our fists would never be idle. (Use another modal auxiliary to make the
    sentence of ability)
    Ans: Our fists can never be idle.
    31] The law will protect me against violent retaliation. (Use another modal
    auxiliary to make the sentence of obligation)
    Ans: The law must protect me against violent retaliation.
    32] I may be haughty. (Use another modal auxiliary)
    Ans: I can be haughty.
    33] The law will acquit me. (Use another modal auxiliary to make the sentence of
    necessity)
    Ans: The law needs to acquit me.
    34] When Sir Anthony Absolute bullied Captain Absolute, he bullied his man,
    Fag (Use- No sooner —- than)
    Ans: :No sooner did Sir Anthony Absolute bullied Captain Absolute
    than he bullied his man, Fag.
    35] But no legal system could attempt to legislate against bad manners. (Use
    another modal auxiliary to make the sentence of habitual action in the past)
    Ans: But no legal system would attempt to legislate against bad manners.
    36] No court could administer a law. (Rhetorical Question)
    Ans: Could any court administer a law?
    37] We need to use kitchen water for the plants.
    (Identify the modal auxiliary and write its function)
    Ans: Modal auxiliary – Need to
    Function- Necessity
    38] It could not sanction the use of violence against something. (Use another modal
    auxiliary to make the sentence of certainty)
    Ans: It will not sanction the use of violence against something.
    39] The gutters of the city would run with blood all day. (Use another modal
    auxiliary)
    Ans: The gutters of the city used to run with blood all day.
    40] The law does not compel me to say “Please.” (Use another modal auxiliary to
    make the sentence of possibility)
    Ans: The law may not compel me to say “Please.”
    41] He could have got a legal redress. (Use another modal auxiliary to make the
    sentence of compulsion)
    Ans: He must have got a legal redress.
    42] The pain of a wound to our self-respect or our vanity may poison a whole day.
    (Use another modal auxiliary to make the sentence of more certain)
    Ans: The pain of a wound to our self-respect or our vanity will poison a whole day.
    43] I can imagine that lift-man. (Use another modal auxiliary to make the sentence
    of duty)
    Ans: I ought to imagine that lift-man.
    44] We infect the world with our ill-humours. (Use another modal auxiliary to make
    the sentence of prohibition)
    Ans: We may not infect the world with our ill-humours.
    45] The law cannot become the guardian of our private manners. (Use another
    modal auxiliary)
    Ans: The law may not become the guardian of our private manners.
    46] No Decalogue could cover the vast area of offences. (Use another modal
    auxiliary to make the sentence of less possibility)
    Ans: No Decalogue might cover the vast area of offences.
    47] And the first requirement of civility is that we should acknowledge a service.
    (Use another modal auxiliary)
    Ans: And the first requirement of civility is that we ought to acknowledge a
    service.
    48] He can have the service for good-feeling. (Use another modal auxiliary to
    make the sentence of request)
    Ans: Could he have the service for good-feeling?
    49] But where shall I send the fare? (Use another modal auxiliary to make the
    sentence of ability)
    Ans: But where can I send the fare?
    50] Lesser people should take lessons in conduct from them. (Use another modal
    auxiliary to make the sentence of less certain)
    Ans: Lesser people may take lessons in conduct from them.
    51] We cannot get them back by invoking the law. (Use another modal auxiliary to
    make the sentence of habitual action in the past)
    Ans: We would not get them back by invoking the law.
    52] It is a necessary institution for the society. (Use another modal auxiliary to
    make the sentence of necessity)
    Ans: It needs to be an institution for the society.
    53] We must get those civilities back. (Identify the modal auxiliary and write its
    function)
    Ans: Modal auxiliary – Must
    Function- obligation
    54] The law can only protect us against material attack. (Identify the modal
    auxiliary and write its function)
    Ans: Modal auxiliary – can
    Function- ability
    55] The polite man may lose the material advantage. (Identify the modal auxiliary
    and write its function)
    Ans: Modal auxiliary – May
    Function- possibility

    56] There is a social practice much older and much more sacred than any law.

    Ans: There is no other law as old and much sacred as a social practice
    57] Bad manners probably do more to poison the stream of the general life than all
    the crimes in the calendar.

    Ans: All the crimes in the calendar probably do not do as much to poison the
    stream of the general as bad manners.

    The liftman demanded “Top-please,” and this concession (privilege / छूट/ अधिकार) being refused he not only declined (rejected/ अस्वीकार करना) to comply (follow/ आज्ञापालन करना) with the instruction, but hurled (threw/धक्का देना) the passenger out of the lift.

    ThrThis, of course was carrying a comment on manner too far (excessive demand). Discourtesy (rudeness) is not a legal offence, and it does not excuse (allow/ permit) ASSAULT AND BATTERY. (An attack which includes not only threats but also the actual use of violence/ हमला) If a burglar (thief) breaks into my house and I knock him down (नीचे गिराना), the law will acquit (release, make free/ छोड़ देना, निर्दोष ठहराना) me, and if I am physically assaulted, it will permit me to retaliate (take revenge, बदला लेना) with reasonable (sound) violence. It does this because the burglar and my assailant (attacker/ हमलावर) have broken quite definite commands (Certain order) of the law. But no legal system could attempt (try) to legislate (make a law) against bad manners, or could sanction (allow) the use of violence against something which it does not itself recognize as a legally punishable offence (crime). And our sympathy with the lift-man, we must admit that the law is reasonable (moderate/ proper). It would never do if we were at liberty (freedom) to box people’s ears (fight with the fists/ घूँसा मारना ) because we did not like their behaviour (व्यवहार) or the tone of their voices, or the scowl (a facial expression of dislike or displeasure ,गुस्से से देखना) on their faces. Our fists would never be idle (inactive/ silent, we would raise the hand), and the gutters of the city would run with blood all day.

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     I may be as uncivil (bad) as I may please (I may feel) and the law will protect me against violent retaliation (take revenge, बदला लेना). I may be haughty (having a high opinion of oneself and often A low opinion of others/ घमंडी). or  boorish (rude) and there  is  no penalty (fine/ दंड; जुर्माना; सजा )  to pay   except  the penalty of  being  written  down (become famous)  an ill-mannered  fellow . The law does not compel me to say “Please” or to attune my voice to other people’s sensibilities (the ability to experience deep feelings) any more than it says that I shall not wax my moustache or dye my hair or wear ringlets (घूँघराले बाल ) down my back. It does not recognize laceration (damage/ hurt) of our feeling as a case for compensation. There is no allowance (fee, payment, भत्ता) for moral and intellectual (mental) damages in these matters.

          This does not mean that the damages (amends) are negligible (neglectful/ तुच्छ; नगण्य). It is probable (likely) that the lift-man was much more acutely hurt (damage/चोट) by what he regarded as a slur (insult, बदनामी; दाग) upon his social standing (socially / social image) than he would have been if he had a kick on the shins, for which he  could have  got a legal redress (justice, समाधान). The pain(a blow with the foot)(ache/ दर्द) of a kick on the shins soon pass away (stop)  but the pain of a wound (injury on the heart, घाव; ज़ख़्म; चोट) to our self-respect (dignity. आत्म-सम्मान) or our vanity (pride, अस्मिता) may poison (spoil/ खराब करणे) a whole day. I can imagine that lift-man, denied ( not got) the relief of throwing the author of his wound out (mind) of the lift, brooding (thinking) over the insult by the hour, and visiting his wife in the evening as the only way of restoring (getting) his equilibrium (balance/ calm mental state/  plural noun: equilibria). For there are few things more catching than (attrctive) bad temper (mood स्वभाव) and bad manners (आदत). When Sir Anthony Absolute bullied (threaten, धमकाना; सताना) Captain Absolute, the latter went out and bullied his man, Fag, whereupon Fag went out downstairs and kicked the page- boy (helper) . 

    Probably the who said “Top” to liftman-man was really (actually) only getting back (reply) on his employer (boss) who had not said “Good morning” to him because he himself had been henpecked (dominated) at breakfast by his wife, to whom the cook had been insolent (rude) because the housemaid had “answered her  back”.  Cha2We infect the world with our  ill-humours (bad nature). Bad manners probably do more to poison the stream (flow) of the general life than all the crimes in the calendar (in the year). For one wife who gets a black eye from an otherwise good- natured husband there are a hundred who live a life of martyrdom (torture शहादत) under the shadow of  A  morose (bad)  temper.  But all the same the law cannot become the guardian (protector संरक्षक) of our private manners (personal life).

    No Decalogue (Ten Commandments given in the Bible, दस धार्मिक उपदेश) could cover the vast area of offences (crime) and no court could administer (manage/run/व्यवस्था करना) a law which governed (control/ नियन्त्रित करना) our social civilities (politeness/ शिष्टाचार), our speech, the tilt (turn/ एक तरफ झुकना) of our eyebrows and all our moods and manners.

                       But  though  we  are  bound (tied)  to  endorse (agree/ support)   the  verdict (judgment/ निर्णय; फैसला) against  the  lift-man,  most  people  will  have certain sympathy ( companion/pity/ सहानुभूति; हमदर्दी ) with him. While it is true that there is no law that compels (obligate / मजबूर करना) us to say “please”, there is a social practice (Pattern/ आदत) much older and much more sacred (spiritual /पूजनीय) than any law which enjoins (tell/command/लागू) us to be civil.

    And the first requirement of civility is that we should acknowledge (admit/ स्वीकार करना; मान लेना) a service. “Please” and thank you”  are the small change with which we pay our ways as social beings. They are the little courtesies (respectful remark शिष्टाचार) by which we keep the machine of life oiled and running sweetly. They  put  our  intercourse (conversation)  upon  the basis of a friendly co-operation (दोस्ताना), an easy give- and- take, (good-natured exchange (as of ideas or comments))instead of on the basis of superiors (senior) dictating (order हुक्म चलाना; आदेश देना) to inferiors (Junior). It is a very vulgar (impolite/ असभ्य) mind that would wish to command where he can have the service for asking and have it with willingness and good-feeling instead of resentment (anger/ नाराजगी)   I should like to feature (present/tell/  पेश करना) in this connection my friend, the polite conductor. By this discriminating (differentiate/ दोष दाखवनारा शब्द) title I do not intend to suggest a rebuke (blame/oppose/ डांट-फटकार) to conductors generally.    

        On the contrary, I am disposed (likely /willing/  प्रवृत्त) to think that there are few classes of men who come through the ordeal (test / कठिन परीक्षा /परख) of a very trying calling better than bus conductors do. Here and there you will meet an unpleasant specimen (people/नमुने) who regards (consider) the passengers as his nature enemies (foe/ दुश्मन; शत्रु) –as creatures (people) whose chief (main/  प्रमुख) purpose on the bus is to cheat him, and who can only be kept reasonably honest  by a loud voice and an aggressive manner. But this type is rare-rarer than it used to be. I fancy (imagine/ like) the public owes (be obliged repay /expect/  आभारी होना; ऋणी होना) much to the Underground Railway Company, which also runs the buses, for insisting ( take a firm stand/ ज़ोर देना) on a certain standard (level) of civility (good behavior)  in  its servants and taking care that standard is observed. In doing this it not only makes things pleasant (joyful) for the travelling public, but performs an important social service.    

     It is not, therefore, with any feeling of unfriendliness (bad thinking/गलत सोच) to conductors as a class (society/community) that I pay a tribute (appreciation / प्रशंसा; आभार) to a particular member of that class. I first became conscious (aware/ realize/ अवगत)  of  his existence one day when I jumped on to a bus and found that I had left  home  without any  money  in  my  pocket. Everyone has had the experience and knows the feeling, the mixed feeling, which the discovery (finding /feeling) arouses (evoke/create). You are annoyed (irritated / परेशान) because you look like a fool at the best and like a knave (cheater/  धोखेबाज़) at the worst. You would not be at all surprised if the conductor eyed (looked) you coldly (displeasure) as much as to say, “Yes, I know that stale (common/ general/बासी; पुराना) old trick. Now then, off you get.’’ (get you down) And even if the conductor is a good fellow and lets you down easily, you are with the necessity of going back (need to go back home), and the inconvenience (trouble/hassle/ परेशानी; तकलीफ़), perhaps, of missing your train or your engagement (meeting appointment).     

    Having searched my   pockets   in vain (Useless बेकार में  /व्यर्थ में) for stray coppers (coins), and having found I was utterly (totally)  penniless (without a penny / coin of a paisa/ cent ), I told the  conductor  with as honest a face as I  could assume (think) that I couldn’t pay the fare (ticket/ charge/ किराया), and must go back for money. “Oh you  needn’t  get off: that’s all right,” said he.  “All right,” said I, “but I haven’t a copper on me.” “Oh, I’ll book you through,” he replied. “Where d’ye (would you) want to go?” and he handled his bundle of tickets with the air of a man who was prepared (ready) to give me a ticket for anywhere from the Bank to Hong Kong. I said it was very kind of him, and told him where I wanted to go, and as he gave me the ticket I said, “But where shall I send the fare?” “Oh, you’ll see (meet) me some day all right,” he said cheerfully, he turned to go. And then, luckily, my fingers, still wandering in the corner of my pockets lighted on (got) a shilling the account was squared (Equal).  But that fact did not lessen the glow (shine)  of pleasure (joy/ happiness) which  so good-natured an action had given me.

             A few days after, my most sensitive (delicate/नाजूक) toe was trampled (injured/ fallen on कुचलना( on rather heavily as I sat reading on the top of a bus. I looked up with some anger (outrage / गुस्सा; /संताप) and more agony (pain) and saw my friend of the cheerful countenance (face/ शक्ल .) “Sorry, sir,” he said. “I know these are heavy boots. Got’ em because my own feet get trod (tread/ step on/ fallen)  on so much, and  now I’m treading (पांव रखना ) on other people’s. Hope I didn’t hurt (injury/ चोट पहुंचाना) you, sir.” He had hurt me but he was so nice about it that I assured (ensure /विश्वास दिलाना) him he hadn’t. After this I began to observe him whenever I boarded (get on / enter / चढ़ना; सवार होना) his bus and found a curious pleasure in the constant good- natured of his bearing (manner / conduct/ आचरण; व्यवहार;).  He seemed to have an inexhaustible (unlimited अपार; बेशुमार) ) fund  of (lot of) patience and a  gift  for making his passengers comfortable (pleasant/ easy/ सुखद; आरामदायक)  I noticed that if  it was raining he  would run up the stairs to give someone the tip (suggestion)   that there was “room inside”.Rai

    With old people he was as considerate (kind/ thoughtful) as a son. And with children as solicitous (loving/careful) as a father. SofaHe had evidently (clearly/ obviously) a peculiarly (particularly) warm (loving) place in his heart for young people, and always, indulged (involve in enjoy/ मौज-मस्ती के लिए किसी काम में लिप्त होना ) in some merry jest (मजेदार मज़ाक) with them. If he had a blind man on board it was not enough to set him down safely on the pavement (footpath). He would call to Bill in front to wait while he took him across the road or round the corner, or otherwise safely on his way. In short, I found that he irradiated (created/enlighten/ जगमगाना; चमकाणा) such an atmosphere of good-temper and  kindliness that a  journey  with  him was a lesson  in natural courtesy and good manners.

        What struck (impress/ affected/ प्रभावित करणा) me particularly was the ease with which he got through his work. If bad manners are infectious (infective/ संक्रामक/ फैलने वाला) so also are good manners. If we encounter incivility most of  us are apt (likely) to  become  uncivil,  but  it  is an usually uncouth (impolite)  person  who  can  be disagreeable (not to be ready to affect)  with  sunny (pleasant /happy) people.

               It is with manners as with the weather (manners is like the weather). ‘‘Nothing cares up (brighten/make cheerful/ शुद्ध करना) my spirits (mood/ temper/  आत्मा) like  a  fine day,” said Keats, and a cheerful (happy) person descends (create an effect) on even the gloomiest (depressed/सबसे निराशाजनक) of us with something of the (like) benediction (blessing/ आशीर्वाद) of a fine day.  And so it was always fine weather on the polite conductor’s bus, and his own civility, his conciliatory (compromising/ friendly/ मैत्रीपूर्ण) address and good-humoured bearing ( good conduct आचरण; व्यवहार ) infected his passengers. In lightening their spirits, he lightened his own task. His gaiety (happiness/ प्रसन्नता;  खुशी; आनंद) was not a wasteful luxury (pleasure), but a sound investment.

    I have missed  him  from  my  bus  route  of late (many days);  but  I hope that only means that he has carried his  sunshine (happiness) on to another road. It cannot be too widely diffused (spread) in a rather drab (gloomy) world. And I make no apologies (excuse/ माफीनामा) for writing a panegyric (a piece of writing to praise someone highly/ praiseful words/ प्रशंसा) on an unknown bus conductor. If Wordsworth could gather (get/ learn) lessons  of  wisdom (intelligence/ विद्वता; ज्ञान) from  the  poor  leech-gatherer (leech-parasite/ खून चूसने वाला कीड़ा) on the lonely moor (wet land/ दलदल युक्त बंजर भूमि) I see no reason why lesser people should not  take lessons in conduct from one who shows  how a very modest calling may be  dignified (grand)  by good-temper and kindly feeling.

    It is a matter of general agreement that the war has had a chilling (shocking) effect upon those little everyday civilities (politeness/ सभ्यता) of behavior that sweeten (more pleasant ) the general air (atmosphere) . We must get those civilities back if we are to make life kindly and tolerable (fair/acceptable) for each other. We cannot get them back by invoking (appealing/ taking the help of / की सहायता लेना) the law. The policeman is a necessary  symbol and the law is a necessary institution for as society that is still some-what lower than the angels (impolite/ less than perfect). But the law can only protect us against material (physical) attack. Nor will the lift-man’s way of meeting (facing) moral affront (insult) by physical violence help us to restore (recover / reconstruct) the civilities. I suggest to him, that he would have had a more subtle (clever) and effective revenge if he had treated the gentleman who would not say “please” with elaborate (careful) politeness.

    He would have had (got) the victory, not only over the boor (rude insensitive person / गंवार), but over himself, and that is the victory counts (matter/consider). The polite man may lose the material advantage, but he always has the spiritual victory. I commend (deliver/ told) to the lift- man story of Chesterfield. In his time the London streets were without the pavements of today, and the man who “took the wall” had the driest footing. “I never give the wall to a scoundrel (rascal/ बदमाश)” said the man who met Chesterfield one day in the street.  “I always do,” said Chesterfield, stepping with a bow into the road.Wach I hope the lift-man will agree that his revenge was much more sweet than if he had flung (throw) the fellow into the mud. 

     

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